Tag Archives: farming

Seeds of Halloween

Halloween…

Pumpkins - A Potent Symbol of Samhain and the seeds we are carrying within us. Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

Pumpkins – A Potent Symbol of Samhain and the seeds we are carrying within us. Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

As we approach once more the mid-point between the Autumn Equinox and Winter Solstice, known by many modern cultures as ‘Halloween’ and by some pagan traditions as Samhain (pronounced ‘sa–ween’), the beginning of winter, it seems a fitting moment to be reflecting upon what we have been harvesting throughout the year, both physically and metaphorically.

Samhain, October 31st, is celebrated by some as one of the most important feasts of the year, being a time where it is said that any magic practised is more potent, when “spirits” can be easily felt, and when communication amongst ourselves is enhanced (1). Whatever your own personal opinion on this matter, if you live in the Northern Hemisphere, you probably feel at least some kind of tingling expectation – don’t you? –at the fresh chill beginning to paw at you in the morning air; at the scent of wood-smoke drifting through the trees, and the glorious red-gold-amber spectacle of gently dropping leaves.

It may be interesting for those living in Britain to note that although relatively few people in the British Isles still know the traditions of Samhain, the festival is ceebrated in Galicia, Northern Spain, as ‘Samaín’ – showing the strong cultural ties we share and the similarities in our symbologies.

Harvesting Seeds

Last week, an important step was taken for the co-ordination of growers in the UK and Ireland, as the Gaia Foundation (2) released their preliminary report on the feasibility of creating a UK and Ireland-wide seed programme, enabling increased communication, education and resource mapping throughout the UK and Republic of Ireland. The report shows that all involved feel that such a programme will be highly useful to help growers, farmers and co-operatives to network, and encourage wider participation amongst growers of all kinds in the seed-saving process (3).

Such a task has many perspectives and is not necessarily simple, especially when you take into account (as the report does) the difference between ‘organic’ (not using chemical products) and ‘certified organic’ (with a designation from a body such as the Soil Association) and the pros and cons of F1 hybrid seeds, and whether or not it is useful to produce them along with Open pollinated (OP) seeds (3).

Nevertheless, the report is clear on the fact that growers, campaigners, farmers and other interested seedy people throughout the land believe that a network can help to break the hold of multinational companies on the seed market who are contributing to a loss of agro-biodiversity, and instead encourage a community of commercial growers who are interested not only in short-term profit, but in regeneration of land, soil and ecosystem preservation, and genetic diversity.

Nurturing our Networks

For the next 6 weeks we shall be living in increasing darkness as the sun shines for less and less each day, culminating in the shortest day of Yule or Winter Solstice on the night of December 21st. It is a time traditionally for gathering around the fire and telling stories; imagining new beginnings and preparing for the return of the sun. In our modern societies such connotations are perhaps little more than metaphors, but they can be powerful ones even so.

Whether you are planning some pumpkin carving, a spooky party, a magical ritual or simply a normal Saturday night, Samhain seems an apt time to deepen connections amongst family and friends, and to begin new ones.

Whatever seeds we have at this time, if we nurture them now, they will grow strong once their time comes. There’s no need to hurry, though; the time of darkness is also a time for patience.

Happy Samhain…

Notes

If you wish to see the full report, please feel free to request it from me using the ‘Contact’ page.

References

  1. Sentier, E, 2014. Trees of the Goddess: A New Way of Working with the Ogham. Shaman Pathways: Gloucestershire, UK.
  2. Gaia Foundation, 2015. ‘About Us’. http://www.gaiafoundation.org/about-us – retrieved 17/10/15
  3. Strong, H, 2015. ‘Developing a Robust, Accessible and Diverse Organic Seed System in the UK and Ireland: Feasibility Study Report’. Gaia Foundation: October 2015

ORFC Day One: Planting Seeds

Today saw the planting of many seeds at Oxford Real Farming Conference (1), some of which are already beginning to sprout (if the metaphor can be stretched so far)…

The Conference began with a recognition of the importance of soil, something which surprisingly few farmers care for the health of (see for example 2), considering that without soil we would not have any farms. In the wake of the overturning of the proposed Soil Framework Directive (2) last year, there is growing concern that we need to be paying more attention to this most fundamental of things, to the extent that this year, 2015, has been declared the Year of Soils by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN (3). To show this importance the first speaker in the Main Hall was world-renowned soil biologist and educator Dr Elaine Ingham (4), who flew in especially from California to attend.

From soil to seeds in the Land Worker’s Alliance area: a lively discussion of EU seed law, ‘Pathways to Seed Sovereignty’ with the Soil Association’s Ben Raskin, Kate McEvoy from Real Seeds, Peter Brown from the Biodynamic Plant Breeding and Seed Cooperative (5) and Dan Burston and Ashley Wheeler from the South West Seed Saver’s Co-op (6), was followed by a read-out of the LWA’s manifesto for policy change.

In terms of food, and linking all of these issues to actually how to get the public to change their eating habits, we had a very interesting public discussion, chaired by Vicki Hird of Friends of the Earth (7) with a panel from the Square Meal Report: Tim Lang (professor of Food Policy at City University), Dan Crossley (Food Ethics Council), Rob Macklin (National Trust), Mike Clarke (RSPB) and Philip Lymbery (Compassion in World Farming). The discussion began with a summary of what the Square Meal Report is: a report highlighting the need for “a fair and square deal for farming, people, wildlife and public health”. After a brief introduction from each of the panel, the floor was thrown open and ideas, stories and concerns began coming thick and fast. How to persuade people to buy ethical, healthy food when they cannot afford it? Who do we need to concentrate on: policy makers? Corporations? Local councils? Ourselves? Responses were wild and, as is usually the case in these discussions, many more questions were raised than we had time to discuss. One overarching theme I gathered, however, was the importance of keeping one’s integrity while allowing others to keep theirs as well. As Mike Clarke put it quite succinctly, “we need to keep an open mind…and ask questions”.

The ‘New Science of GMOs’ session run by Lawrence Woodward of Beyond GM (8) and Michael Antoniou of King’s College London, was so popular that the 80-seated capacity room was filled up with people sitting, standing and squeezing. An interesting sign of the growing level of concern about GMOs, perhaps.

In the technology department we had a discussion of ‘Appropriate Technologies’ which was very informative, though unfortunately some of the technology involved in the session managed to fail entirely; as they were supposed to be linking via Skype with Dorn Cox of Farmhack (9), a new open source community resource for farmers and growers to take control of tools and growing techniques into their own and communities’ hands; but could not get the internet to work. Nevertheless, we did get treated to Farmhack’s promo video and heard about the UK 2015 Farmhack gathering which will be happening on 15 and 16 April.

Along with these were sessions on flooding, a criticism on climate smart agriculture, a discussion of the concerns raised by TTIP when it comes to food and farming, a presentation on mental health in farming communities, and much much more, along with tasty locally-sourced food (we were told) and a wonderfully welcoming atmosphere. Tonight the Land Worker’s Alliance are organising food and musical entertainment, and the conference continues tomorrow.

References

  1. Oxford Real Farming Conference, 2014. ‘About’. http://orfc.org.uk/about/ – retrieved 21/12/14
  2. Monbiot, G, 2014. ‘The farming lobby has wrecked efforts to defend our soil’. Guardian, 5/6/2014. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/georgemonbiot/2014/jun/05/the-farming-lobby-has-wrecked-efforts-to-defend-our-soil – retrieved 06/01/15
  3. FAO, 2015. ‘International Year of Soils’. http://www.fao.org/soils-2015/en/ – retrieved 06/01/15
  4. Soil Food Web, Inc: Dr Elaine Ingham, 2014. ‘Homepage’. http://www.soilfoodweb.com – retrieved 04/01/15
  5. Biodynamic Association, 2015. ‘Biodynamic Plant Breeding and Seed Cooperative’. http://www.biodynamic.org.uk/farming-amp-gardening/seeds/biodynamic-plant-breeding-and-seed-co-operative/ – retrieved 06/01/15
  6. Land Worker’s Alliance, 2014. South West Seed Saver’s Co-op. https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=south+west+seed+savers+co+op&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=gDisVN-hGsm4Ud-2g6gL – retrieved 06/01/15
  7. Friends of the Earth, 2014. ‘About’. http://www.foe.co.uk/– retrieved 06/01/15
  8. Beyond GM, 2015. ‘Beyond GM’. http://beyond-gm.org/ – retrieved 06/01/15
  9. Farmhack, 2015. ‘Home’. http://farmhack.net/home/ – retrieved 06/01/15

 

Oxford Real Farming Conference: Inviting Real Ideas for Real Sustainability

Tomorrow morning – well, in a few hours! – sees the beginning of the 6th annual Oxford Real Farming Conference (1), a two-day event packed with talks, seminars and hands-on workshops to bring together a diverse range of people; from seed savers to dairy farmers, permaculture researchers to biodynamic enthusiasts, and keen academics to keen revolutionaries; to talk about how we can change our farming methods to create more sustainable and possibly even regenerative food systems.

Why such a diverse range of people to talk about just one subject: farming? For those of you who may think that farming is just something which happens in fields far away from you, it might be beneficial to broaden your viewpoint. Farming, indeed, can be seen as one of the key aspects of our society: for it is how we source the vast majority of our food, and so the way in which the land is farmed should be something in which we all have an interest and input.

Farming and feeding

In spite of its vast global importance in terms of preserving the human population, many farming practices which are very common today are highly detrimental to the earth, wildlife, and indeed humans as well. The criticisms and concerns are myriad (see for example 2, 3); but the conference is not really focussed on the negative. Rather, the four-stranded two-day programme aims to provide insight into how farming can be done sustainably, and show “who, right now, in Britain and the world at large, is truly farming and marketing and cooking in ways that the world really needs, and others can emulate” (1).

As farming is such a fundamental part of our society it affects every other part. In high-external-input, high-yield intensive farming, this almost inevitably means the comingling of chemicals and petroleum products with the production of food and other use-crops (see for example 4). So interlinked are the two that four of the largest seed companies in the world, who control 49% of the global seed production market, are also chemical companies: Monsanto, DuPont, Syngenta and Bayer (5). Bayer and Syngenta are also pharmaceutical businesses, showing how the linking of food and drugs, an ancient practice which goes back to the first times we began noticing how different herbs have different effects (6, 7) are now both synonymous, in much big business, with chemicals.

The way in which we farm reflects upon the whole of society and the ideas being hinted at in tomorrow and Wednesday’s programme suggest a shift not only in how we grow things, but how we interact as a culture. There are many alternatives to those propagated by the seed-chemical-pharmaceutical companies, so much so, indeed, that it feels only a matter of people becoming aware of them.

Learning

The Conference promises to be a fantastic opportunity for learning, with academic presentations from representatives from educational institutions the Schumacher College (8) and the Centre for Agro-ecology, Water and Resilience (9), as well as the Permaculture Association (10), who run the UK Permaculture Diploma Programme (11) and whose director, Andy Goldring, shall be giving a presentation on Wednesday on permaculture research in the UK, along with Julia Wright, Jay Abrahams and Federico Filipi.

For those perhaps not so interested in academic pursuits there will be interactive workshops on soil evaluation by Bruce Balls and on a number of different market optimisation strategies by various inspirational speakers.

Then if all of this is just not quite enough for the vehement enthusiasm which you have managed to cultivate by now, there are also some fairly radical or hands-on sessions, including an interactive discussion on the rural-urban divide led by Ed Hamer of the Landworkers’ Alliance (12), a planning meeting for the Food Sovereignty UK 2015 Gathering (13) and, perhaps most intriguingly of all if you are interested in these issues but are wondering how, as a landless person, you can become practically involved, a session on how to work with local UK authorities to gain access to land for community use, chaired by Rachel Harries of the Soil Association (14).

Real farming, real people!

The abovementioned are just a fraction of the intriguing and, I fully expect, inspiring talks and sessions which are on offer over the next two days. The networking opportunities are also quite inspirational; as the more we connect and create networks with like-minded people at events such as these, the stronger we can become. To this end the Gaia Foundation (15) and numerous seed organisations from around the UK shall be supporting the coming together of any interested delegates and attendees at another meeting in February (in time for this year’s growing season) expIoring which groups exist in this country who are engaged in seed saving, education and sharing.

For the next forty-eight hours I shall be reporting from the conference: watch this space for updates.

References

  1. Oxford Real Farming Conference, 2014. ‘About’. http://orfc.org.uk/about/ – retrieved 21/12/14
  2. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘The Meat Industry and Ideas for What We Can Do About It’. Permaculture News, 15/04/2014. http://permaculturenews.org/2014/04/15/meat-industry-ideas-can/ -retrieved 4/01/15
  3. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘Scientific Research Condemns Neonicotinoid Chemicals: What More Will It Take?’ Permaculture News, 17/7/2014. http://permaculturenews.org/2014/07/17/scientific-research-condemns-neonicotinoid-pesticides-will-take/ – retrieved 6/01/15
  4. UNCTAD, 2013. Wake Up Before It’s Too Late: Make Farming Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate. UNCTAD: Geneva. Available as a PDF here: http://unctad.org/en/publicationslibrary/ditcted2012d3_en.pdf – retrieved 04/1/15
  5. GM Watch, 2014. ‘The world’s top 10 seed companies: who owns Nature?’ http://www.gmwatch.org/gm-firms/10558-the-worlds-top-ten-seed-companies-who-owns-nature – retrieved 05/1/15
  6. Nunn, John (2002). Ancient Egyptian Medicine. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 151. ISBN978-0-8061-3504-5
  7. Robson, Barry & Baek, O.K. (2009). The Engines of Hippocrates: From the Dawn of Medicine to Medical and Pharmaceutical Informatics. John Wiley & Sons.
  8. Schumacher College, 2014. ‘About Us’. https://www.schumachercollege.org.uk/about – retrieved 04/01/15
  9. Coventry University, 2014. ‘Centre for Agro-Ecology, Water and Resilience’. http://www.coventry.ac.uk/research/areas-of-research/agroecology-water-resilience/ – retrieved 04/01/15
  10. Permaculture Association, 2014. ‘Our Work’. https://www.permaculture.org.uk/our-work -retrieved 04/01/15
  11. Permaculture Association, 2014. ‘Diploma in Applied Permaculture Design’. https://www.permaculture.org.uk/diploma – retrieved 06/01/15
  12. Land Workers Alliance, 2014. ‘Who We Are’. http://landworkersalliance.org.uk/organisation/ – retrieved 06/01/15
  13. Food Sovereignty Now, 2014. ‘National Gathering 2015’. http://foodsovereigntynow.org.uk/ukfoodsov/national-gathering-2015/ – retrieved 06/01/15
  14. Soil Association, 2014. ‘What Is Organic?’ http://www.soilassociation.org/whatisorganic – retrieved 06/01/15
  15. Gaia Foundation, 2014. ‘About Us’. http://www.gaiafoundation.org/about-us – retrieved 06/01/15

The Biodiversity Web and How we can Re-Thread It

From a cursory glance into your local shop or most media outlets, it could seem that the trend of high-input, intensive farming – wherein monoculture-grown crops which are bought at low prices then transported to be sold at high prices or, in many cases, thrown away or left in the fields to rot – is the norm of today’s world (see for example 1). This has many problems, not least that this type of farming is in no way sustainable and the systems surrounding it involves an estimated 30 – 50% (1.2 – 22 billion tonnes) of food being wasted annually, before it even reaches a human stomach (2).

The factors surrounding such inefficiencies are many, but luckily, they are not the only way. Low-input, efficient and sustainable farming has been practised by many groups for centuries if not millennia (see for example 3); and though recent decades have seen the rise of large machinery, disregard for biodiversity and ecology and factory-farmed animals and crops (see for example 3), concepts such as sustainability and biodiversity are gradually becoming popular once more. Key names of the sustainable design movement of the past thirty years include Masanobu Fukuoka who recommends very low-input agricultural techniques such as ‘No-dig Farming’ (4) and use of seed bombs (see for example 5); and Bill Mollison and David Holmgren, who coined the term ‘Permaculture’ and the principles with which one can use such a design style in practice (see for example 6, 7).

The Web of Biodiversity - visible in many places if you know where to look. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

The Web of Biodiversity – visible in many places if you know where to look. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Caring for our world: not just for the minority!

These names, though well-known to people already interested in sustainable growing, may be completely unheard of to most of the public, including, probably, many farmers who are utilising what could be called ‘Permaculture’ or ‘Natural Farming’ simply through their own recognition of the holistic nature of the world and their respect for this while maintaining awareness of how to use the energies around them to create enough resources for themselves. Even in the world of what could be called ‘conventional’ farming, however, such ideas are permeating. In 2013 the UN Conference on Trade and Development published a report, entitled Wake Up Before It’s Too Late: Make Farming Truly Sustainable Now (8). This is not a bunch of alternative thinkers or unconnected-to-the mainstream farmers; but the UN, an internationally recognised and (more or less) respected organisation.  The report recommends

“A rapid and significant shift from conventional, monoculture-based and high-external-input-dependent industrial production towards mosaics of sustainable, regenerative production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers.” (9)

This shift would not be possible without a fundamental reappraisal of our relationship with our environment. We need to consider what has been coined the ‘true cost’ (10) of farming; not just the price of the crop itself, which is in any case subject to the tides of the international market, but the cost to the environment of what is going into the farming. Philip Lymbery and Isabel Oakeshott, co-authors of Farmageddon: The True Cost of Cheap Meat (11) refer to studies (see for example 12) which show that when looked at in this holistic way it is clear that as well as the environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity caused by high-input monoculture and factory farming, it is in fact less efficient – indeed, farmers actually lose money by utilising such methods -and worse for our health. For more details on this, see my report here (13)

When these factors are taken into account, it seems impossible to take the words of groups such as Syngenta and Bayer, who claim that large-scale agriculture with high use of chemicals in necessary for crop production (see for example 14), with much serious credence.

The joys of having many fruit varieties! Photo by Charlotte Haworth

The joys of having many fruit varieties! Photo by Charlotte Haworth

A Different Way…

There are, indeed, many groups who are experimenting with other ways of farming which take into account animal, environmental and social welfare, without forgetting the welfare of the farmers themselves. The shift is, in many ways, a subtle one and involves us all starting to look at things from a holistic perspective. We can all be conscious of the ‘web’ of biodiversity which surrounds us and connects to us; whether we are designing a farm, a home-scale garden or simply our week’s activities. As we all eat food, regardless of whether or not we have access to land for production, so somewhere we are all affecting the way in which that food is grown. One of the simplest ways in which we can become more aware of how to help create beneficial connections is just becoming aware of the different factors involved. From many years of involvement in practical projects for sustainable living I feel that these factors can be split into the following main categories:

  • Seed sovereignty – The need for autonomy and diversity of seed choice in order to create more sustainable and secure food systems
  • Critical Education – Passing on of key skills in growing, such as seed saving and sustainable, regenerative or holistic farming (otherwise known as permaculture, agro-ecology and any number of indigenous terms); but also other key skills to help society to become regenerative and sustainable, such as effective communication methods and social designs (for more on this see for example 14)
  • Food sovereignty – Linked to seed sovereignty, this involves re-integration of food networks into locally autonomous ones, and re-distribution of food surplus in the short term leading to self-regenerating food systems which create zero or very little waste in the long term. On a personal level, putting this strand into practice can be as simple as getting involved with your local vegbox scheme or food re-distribution group.
  • Networking- Creating links between different groups and individuals for mutual benefit and to avoid duplication and waste

These three come under the broad theme which it is probably prudent to remember, and which has many names though I am calling it:

Culture of Biodiversity –The need to recognise, appreciate and celebrate the need for biodiversity to benefit the heath of the planet and of ourselves, and to strive to improve this at all levels.

This can apply to many aspects of life, whether it is a diversity of currencies, such as supplementing one’s salary with work-exchange, use of LETS (15) and CSA credits (16) and local currencies; of people, such as exploration of the rich mixture of cultures which is available to us; and of plants, such as use of heirloom seeds and trees or buying odd varieties of vegetables to encourage preservation of different genes, and collection and cultivation of rare or forgotten plants which still may be of key use to us as a society.

The above list is by no means exhaustive but it seems that when we take into account the importance of seed sovereignty, critical education, food sovereignty and networking along with the broad theme of a culture of biodiversity we can begin truly cultivating a sustainable world.

Real farming

  With this in mind, it is refreshing to find so many groups who are already working towards these things. At seed level, we have events such as the Great Seed Festival (16) and Seedy Sunday (17) and the newly set up South West Seed Saver’s Co-op (18) and the Biodynamic Plant Breeding and Seed Co-op (19) (BPBSC), as well as the London Freedom Seed Bank (20), Open Pollinated Seed (21) and the Heritage Seed Library (23) who are promoting seed saving of heritage varieties.

From seed to fruit; with groups such as the Brighton Permaculture Trust (24) who can plant a heritage-variety orchard for you, and who are involved in the Orchards Without Borders cross-cultural exchange project (25) (26).

For education there are innumerable campaigns and organisations out there to hep you to decide for yourself what is right, from the Brighton and Hove Food Partnership (27) to Beyond GM (28) or Compassion in World Farming (29), as well as actual education establishments such as the Schumacher College (30), the Centre for Agro-ecology, Water and Resilience (31) and online resources such as those offered by the Soil Food Web (32). One downside to such establishments is the somewhat exclusive cost of many of the courses on offer, though this may begin to change as our culture begins to shift away from dependence on solely money as a currency, or as people become more autonomous with food and shelter and so have more money available for other things.

In terms of promoting a culture of biodiversity there are a number of groups such as the Permaculture Association of Britain (33), who promote permaculture in practice through the Diploma programme and the LAND Permaculture Demonstration Network, and the Gaia Foundation (34), which amongst other things is encouraging indigenous growing practices to promote biodiversity.

With such a wealth of actions going on from such a diverse range of groups, suddenly the future seems altogether more hopeful. Yet it is when we come together that our actions can really come alive, and that is where the networking side of things comes in.

Next week, I shall be attending an event which brings together many of the above-mentioned groups and individuals, as well as a whole host more; the Oxford Real Farming Conference (35). partly set up as an “antidote to the official Oxford Farming Conference” but mainly as a place for people to engage with positive actions and solutions, “to ask what the world really needs, and what’s possible, and to show what really can be done” (35), the Conference is now in its 6th year, with over 550 delegates planning to swoop upon Oxford this coming Tuesday.

Conference Networking

This year’s ORFC focusses on four main strands of alternative farming:

Farming Outside the Box: “fresh ideas and vibrant discussions at an event designed by farmers for farmers” (36)

Digging Deep: “economic and political trends that are shaping farming –– and at the deep ideas, of morality and science, that form the zeitgeist and underpin all our attitudes and actions” (37)

New Generation, New Ideas: “farmers and of everyone else who completes the food chain – bakers, butchers, distributors, retailers” (38)

Nuts and Bolts: “in depth discussion of all aspects of real farming” (39)

Each strand features speakers and there are also practical workshops for those who wish to get really in-depth.

The Oxford Real Farming Conference is just one of many examples of the power of networking, and I shall be reporting from it this Tuesday and Wednesday, 6 and 7 January 2015. Check this blog for inside information on all things Real (farming)!

References

  1. Collapse of Industrial Civilization, 2014. ‘Monoculture: Food Variety Tree’. http://collapseofindustrialcivilization.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/food-variety-tree-754.gif – retrieved 4/01/15
  2. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2013. “Global Food: Waste Not, Want Not”. Institution of Mechanical Engineers: London. Available as a PDF here: http://www.imeche.org/docs/default-source/reports/Global_Food_Report.pdf?sfvrsn=0 – retrieved 4/01/15
  3. Kirschenmann, F, 2004. ‘A Brief History of Sustainable Agriculture’. The Networker: Volume 9, No. 2. Science and Environmental health Network: Iowa. Available online here: http://www.sehn.org/Volume_9-2.html#a2 – retrieved 4/01/15
  4. Fukuoka, M, 1985. The Natural Way of Farming: The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy. Bookventure: Online
  5. Bones, J, 1995. “On a Green Mountain: Interview with Masanobu Fukuoka, Sensei of Natural Farming”. Wildness Rus, 1995. Archived content. Available as an internet archive here: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224120427/http://www.seedballs.com/gmmfpa.html – retrieved 4/01/15
  6. Mollison, B, 1988. Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual. Tagari Publications: Tasmania
  7. Holmgren, D, 2011. Permaculture: Principles and Pathways beyond Sustainability. Permanent Publications: The Sustainability Centre, Hampshire
  8. UNCTAD, 2013. Wake Up Before It’s Too Late: Make Farming Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate. UNCTAD: Geneva. Available as a PDF here: http://unctad.org/en/publicationslibrary/ditcted2012d3_en.pdf -retrieved 4/01/15
  9. UNCTAD, 2013. ‘Key Messages’. Wake Up Before It’s Too Late: Make Farming Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate. UNCTAD: Geneva. Available as a PDF here: http://unctad.org/en/publicationslibrary/ditcted2012d3_en.pdf -retrieved 4/01/15
  10. Lamberley, P and Oakeshott, I, 2014. Farmageddon: The True Cost of Cheap Meat. Bloomsbury: London
  11. Emily S Cassidy et al, 2013. Environ. Res. Lett. 8 034015. “Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare”. University of Minnesota: Minneapolis
  12. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘The Meat Industry and Ideas for What We Can Do About It’. Permaculture News, 15/04/2014. http://permaculturenews.org/2014/04/15/meat-industry-ideas-can/ -retrieved 4/01/15
  13. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘Scientific Research Condemns Neonicotinoid Pesticides: What More Will it Take?’ Permaculture News, 17/07/2014. http://permaculturenews.org/2014/07/17/scientific-research-condemns-neonicotinoid-pesticides-will-take/ -retrieved 4/01/15
  14. Macnamara, L, 2012. People and Permaculture: Caring and Designing for Ourselves, each Other and the Planet. Permanent Publications: The Sustainability Centre, Hampshire
  15. Letslink UK, 2014. ‘Welcome! So what are LETS?’ http://www.letslinkuk.net -retrieved 4/01/15
  16. Soil Association, 2014. ‘Community Supported Agriculture’. http://www.soilassociation.org/communitysupportedagriculture – retrieved 4/01/15
  17. Great Seed Festival, 2014. ‘The Great Seed Festival: Celebrating the Seeds that Feed Us’. http://www.greatseedfestival.co.uk – retrieved 4/01/15
  18. Seedy Sunday, 2014. ‘Seedy Sunday Brighton’. http://seedysunday.org – – retrieved 4/01/15
  19. Land Worker’s Alliance, 2014. ‘South West Seed Saver’s Coop’. http://landworkersalliance.org.uk/south-west-seed-savers-cooperative/ – retrieved 21/12/14
  20. Biodynamic Association, 2014. ‘Biodynamic Plant Breeding and Seed Co-op’. http://www.biodynamic.org.uk/farming-amp-gardening/seeds/biodynamic-plant-breeding-and-seed-co-operative.html – retrieved 21/12/14
  21. London Freedom Seed Bank, 2014. ‘About Us’. http://londonfreedomseedbank.wordpress.com/about/ – retrieved 21/12/14
  22. Open Pollinated Seed, 2014. ‘Introduction’. http://www.open-pollinated-seeds.org.uk/open-pollinated-seeds/Introduction.html  – retrieved 21/12/14
  23. Garden Organic, 2014. ‘What is the HSL?’ http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/hsl – retrieved 21/12/14
  24. Brighton Permaculture Trust, 2014. ‘Home’. https://brightonpermaculture.org.uk – retrieved 04/01/15
  25. Brighton Permaculture Trust, 2014. ‘Orchards Without Borders’. https://brightonpermaculture.org.uk/orchards/withoutborders – retrieved 04/01/15
  26. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘Orchards Without Borders: Exploring Biodiversity and Culture’. Abundance Garden, 11/12/14. https://abundancedancegarden.wordpress.com/2014/12/11/orchards-without-borders-exploring-diversity-and-culture/ – retrieved 21/12/14
  27. Brighton and Hove Food Partnership, 2014. ‘About’. http://bhfood.org.uk/about/ – retrieved 21/12/14
  28. Beyond GM, 2014. ‘Beyond GM’. http://beyond-gm.org/ – retrieved 21/12/14
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