Tag Archives: community events

Celebrations of Spring and the Sacred

This weekend marks an important festival in many traditions, called by various names and celebrated in different ways. The exact method of celebration varies depending on where you are; however, it seems clear to me that many celebrations have a similar resonance and perhaps even stem from the same archetypal ideas (see for example 1) – that now, in the Northern Hemisphere, is the beginning of Spring, the revolution of the seasons when the world begins to come to life anew.

Here in Italy the celebration is known to the majority Catholic population as ‘Pascua’ – a word which stems from the same root as the word for ‘Passover’ (see for example 2), showing the  links between the different Abrahamic faiths. The traditions of Passover differ from those of Pascua and the celebrations are different depending where you are. Here in Salento one tradition is of the ‘sepolcro’ or ‘tomb’. Following the story of Jesus Christ and his death, on Good Friday, the day every year when Jesus ‘dies’, every church dedicates one section as the ‘tomb’ and is open all night for people to visit to meditate on the death. The tombs vary in imagery but all have flowers and many which I visited had not a human being in the centre but a golden sunshine.

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To me this suggests the recognition of the metaphor which Jesus Christ represents as the sunshine returning to the earth after the ‘death’ of winter. In English, ‘Pascua’ is known as ‘Easter’, a word which stems from the ancient Germano-British Goddess of the spring, Ostara or Eostre (3). Every year, she brings the sunshine back after the death of winter, and life can continue another round. In many myths it is said that Ostara’s gifts of the golden lights of dawn are carried by bounding rabbits or hares (see for example 4), which could otherwise be known as Ostara bunnies (Easter bunnies?)

Ostara is a very old Goddess who has been compared to as the equivalent of Persephone, who in the Ancient Greek tradition descends into the underworld every winter to be reborn in Spring (see for example 5, 6). Many modern practising pagans celebrate her return to the Earth as part of the Wiccan calendar (7), placing the time of celebration around the time of the Spring Equinox.

Another notable celebration which happens at the time of the Equinox is the Feast of San Giuseppe. In Salento and possibly elsewhere in South Italy there is a legend that San Giuseppe once averted a famine (as far as I can tell the legend stems from Sicily) (8). This could be the roots of the Feast. Whatever the reason for it, it is clear that the people of Salento know how to celebrate this important time. In churches and community centres all over the region, offerings are made for San Giuseppe and other saints (I suppose he’s a generous guy and wants to share) in sumptuous arrangements which are quite breathtaking to regard.

 

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The Feast is not only for the Saints, however. Huge amounts of food are cooked and served to all who come to visit the offerings, regardless of faith or of anything else. The important thing is sharing the meal. Such recognition of the importance and sacredness of this often overlooked substance – the food that we eat – is quite moving.

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The Equinox is the day when, for the first time since before the winter, the hours of darkness and light are of equal length and the world begins tipping towards one or the other. Whatever your faith or beliefs, this changing of the light is directly observable with the senses. In the Northern Hemisphere it means the return of light and life to the Earth. You may not believe in Jesus, Ostara, Perspehone or anyone else, but if you believe in yourself you could use the evidence of your senses to celebrate the coming warmth and life.

As Joseph Campbell has said, “People ask me sometimes ‘what rituals can we have?’ You’ve got the rituals only you’re not meditating on them. When you eat a meal that’s a ritual, just realise what you’re doing. When you consort with your friends that’s a ritual, just think what you’re doing. When you beget a child or give birth to a child – what more do you want?!” (6)

We have opportunities to celebrate the abundance of life all the time. The coming of spring can be seen as a fantastic reason to gather together, eat, drink and be merry. So happy sacred spring time, wherever you are and whatever you prefer to do!

References

  1. Campbell, J, 1949. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Pantheon Books: New York City
  2.  Living Language, 2014. ‘Easter and Passover: Different holidays with a shared etymology’. Living Language, 15/4/14. http://www.livinglanguage.com/blog/2014/04/15/easter-and-passover-different-holidays-with-a-shared-etymology/
  3. Watkins 2006 [2000]: 2021.
  4. Elton (1882:408)
  5. Theoi Project, 2016. ‘Persephone’. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/Persephone.html
  6. Joseph Campbell, 1996, quoted in ‘The Mystical Life’. Mythos Series, Episode 5. Athena Studios: San Francisco, USA.
  7. Cusack, Carole M. (2008). “The Return of the Goddess: Mythology, Witchcraft and Feminist Spirituality” as published in Pizza, Murphy. Lewis, James R. (Editors). Handbook of Contemporary Paganism. Brill Publishers: Netherlands
  8.  Caffety, K, 2003. St Joseph Altars. Pelican: Louisiana, USA.

 

 

 

Taste in the Community

There are many ways to go about getting to know a place. You can spend prolonged amounts of time there, you can walk around and look at different views, speak with locals and hear what they say, breathe the air and sense the scents therein. Perhaps one of the most profound ways of getting becoming familiar with an area, however, is to use your sense of taste by trying the food from there. This sense of familiarity may well be what makes wild foraging still a popular activity, even in regions where it has become more popular to harvest your food from the local supermarket than from the forest or rocks of your home.

Salento Sea2. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Salento Sea. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Yet perhaps this is precisely why the allure of wild food collection remains. Even if you have lived somewhere for many years, if not your entire life, you can suddenly and very strongly gain a whole new perspective on the place once you put the food you have gathered from its habitat onto your tongue. Many folk tales and fairy stories speak of the binding power of food; “if you eat food in fairyland…you will never be able to return to the human world”(1). What we ingest is constantly changing us fundamentally, connecting us to the place where it comes from. Such a connection can be even more charged with potency if it is a direct link it is between you and the land from which the food came.

What better way, then, to get to know the land which I have just relocated to than to attend a foraging session and wild food lunch? Less than 1 week after arriving in my new home in Salento, Italy, this is exactly what I stumbled upon. Organised by local groups Sapori Autentici di Comunita (SAC) (Authentic Flavours of the Community) (2), part of Cooperativa Terrarossa (3), along with Salento Bike Tour (4), the event consisted of a guided bike ride around the area to check out the local plants and find which ones are edible. Many of the edible plant specimens were then laid out in a room of the Palazzo Baronale of Tiggiano, with their names in the local dialect, a language which apparently differs to that spoken in the nearby town. More helpful for me was the fact that the plants’ Italian and, most crucially, Latin names were also recorded. However, I appreciate the fact that the dialect-names were the largest on the labels, as knowing what the locals call a plant is by far the most useful information for you if you actually wish to share food with them.

Food sharing was the next activity of the day. It was fitting that the  event was held in what was historically a Baron’s palace, for it was certainly a palatial feast. If the maxim about eating food of the fairies also applies to Salento, I may never leave this place – though I’m not sure I’ll mind. We experienced many local ways to cook the plants, much of them totally new to me and all very tasty. One surprise was the use of Crithmum Maritimum (local name “ripilli”), which in Britain is known as rock samphire and with which, having lived next to the sea in England for many years, I am pretty familiar. I have used it often as a herb to flavour sauces or as a garnish.

~Rock Samphire or Ripili

Rock Samphire, Crithmum Maritimum, or Ripili. All the green parts of the plant are edible raw or cooked – though tastier cooked. The seed pods are also edible. Rock samphire is rich in Vitamin C. Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

In Salento they treat this little succulent maritime plant not as a herb but as a vegetable in its own right, cooking it with garlic and olive oil in a way which fully brings out the flavour of the samphire without overpowering one’s taste-buds.  Needless to say, I am eager for the recipe, though I suppose I’ll have to wait for one of SAC’s cookery demonstrations for this.

It seems I won’t have to wait long. As well as organising such foraging tours, the group run demonstrations of local skills and recipes, and events focussed on local fruit and nut varieties, much like the work I was engaged in with Orchards Without Borders (see for example 5).

Below is a documentation of the wild edibles which can be found in this area at this time of year (late winter/early spring). The climate here is maritime – Salento is a long spit of land which extends out from the main part of Italy into the Ionian and Adriatic sea like the stiletto heel of the Italian boot, and wherever you are in the region you will probably not be more than around 40km from the sea. As well as this the main plant life is Mediterranean, though as mentioned I have already found some species which are familiar from colder climes, and so even if you live in quite a different setting you still may find this selection of edibles of use to you as you go about foraging in your own home.

Rock Samphire in its natural habitat. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Rock Samphire in its natural habitat. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

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The beach at Tricase Porto. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

It is always advisable to be cautious when trying new food for the first time, especially when you have never heard of it before. If you don’t know what it is, it’s probably best to avoid trying it until you’ve found out, though this should probably also apply to any new ingredient you find on a packets of food from your local supermarket (for more on this subject, see 6). But it’s ok! – exploring new tastes is very easy. Even if you do not have an equivalent group to SAC in your local area, there are many fantastic online resources which can help. One of my favourites is Ken Fern’s plant database Plants for a Future (7) on which you can search plant uses, including edible and medicinal.

Whether you find any of the same species as listed here or not, may your foraging be fruitful and your wild food explorations exciting. Even if you live in the middle of a city, you may well be surprised to find what food is growing just under your feet, once you activate the senses to discover it…

Sonchus oleraceus, known in English as Sowthistle

Sonchus Oleraceus, whose English names include Sowthistle. Edible leaves (raw or cooked), stem (cooked), young root (cooked). Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

~Foeniculum vulgare, known in English as Fennel. Edible Leaves, roots, flowers, seeds. Digestive

Foeniculum vulgare, known in English as Fennel. Edible Leaves, roots, flowers, seeds. Digestive. Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

Papaver Rhoeas, known in English as Common Poppy. Edible leaves when cooked, flowers, tasty seeds

Papaver Rhoeas, known in English as Common Poppy. Edible leaves (cooked), flowers, tasty seeds. Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

~Smyrnium olusatrum, known in English as Alexanders. Edible leaves.

Smyrnium olusatrum, known in English as Alexanders. Edible leaves (raw or cooked), flowers (raw or cooked), stem (cooked), root (cooked). Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

Asparagus Acutifolia, known in English as Wild Asparagus. Edible shoots

Asparagus Acutifolia, known in English as Wild Asparagus. Edible shoots (raw or cooked). Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

Shoots of wild asparagus, freshly picked. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Shoots of wild asparagus, freshly picked. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Sinapis Alba, known in English as White Mustard. Edible leaves, flowers

Sinapis Alba, known in English as White Mustard. Edible leaves, flowers. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Brunias Erucago, known in English as Corn Rocket. Edible leaves (cooked)

Brunias Erucago, known in English as Corn Rocket. Edible leaves (cooked). Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

~Cichorium intybus, known in English as Chicory. Edible leaves, root (cooked)

Cichorium intybus, known in English as Chicory. Edible leaves (raw or cooked), root (cooked). Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

Rumex Crispus, known in English as Curly or Yellow Dock. Edible leaves

Rumex Crispus, known in English as Curly Dock. Edible leaves (raw or cooked). Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

Borago Officinalis, known in English as Borage. Leaves edible raw or cooked, flowers edible fresh or dried in tea

Borago Officinalis, known in English as Borage. Edible leaves (raw or cooked), flowers (fresh or dried in tea). Medicinal effects include euphoria-inducing (from the flower tea). Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

~Urospermum picroides, known in English as Prickly Goldenfleece

Urospermum picroides, known in English as Prickly Goldenfleece. Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

~Picris Echioides, known in English as Bristly Ox-Tongue. Leaves edible raw (bitter) and cooked

Picris Echioides, known in English as Bristly Ox-Tongue. Edible leaves raw (bitter) and cooked. Photo by Charlotte Haworth.

 

References 

  1. Lamborn-Wilson, P, 1999. Ploughing the Clouds: The Search for Irish Soma. City Lights: Monroe, Oregon.
  2. Sapori Autentici di Comunita, 2016. Sapori del SAC. Facebook, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/SaporidelSAC – retrieved 12/3/15
  3. Cooperativa Terrarossa, 2016. ‘Chi Siamo [Who we Are]’. http://www.cooperativaterrarossa.org/chi-siamo/ – retrieved 12/3/15
  4. Salento Bike Tour, 2016. ‘Home’. http://www.salentobiketour.it/en/ – retrieved 12/3/15
  5. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘Orchards Without Borders: Exploring Diversity and Culture’. Abundance Garden, 11/12/14. https://abundancedancegarden.wordpress.com/2014/12/11/orchards-without-borders-exploring-diversity-and-culture/ – retrieved 12/3/15
  6. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘The Importance of Eating Food’. Permaculture News, 25/9/14. http://permaculturenews.org/2014/09/26/importance-eating-food/  – retrieved 12/3/15
  7. Plants for a Future, 2016. ‘About Us’. http://pfaf.org/user/AboutUs.aspx  – retrieved 12/3/15

 

Report from Inside the People’s March – the Juicy Details

On the evening of last week’s Conference of the Parties  international climate change conference (COP21) (1), people joined together all over the world to show what we can do and to start doing it…

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Gathering of the Food Warriors – A Formidable Scene. The apples shown here are less than half of what was intercepted. Photo by Feedback.

I’m not afraid of anything that’s blocking me/ I’m not afraid of human force”(2)
Even in Paris, where public demonstrations were banned in the days preceding the conference under the ambiguous reason of “security concerns”, more than 10,000 activists managed to make a human chain in a peaceful manifestation (3). However, London’s March was even more demonstrative of our potentiality to create positive change; as we were not demanding anything from anybody, simply showing what we have got.

 

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Many groups were represented at the march, from pandas and clownfish…

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To coral reefs…

This was the overwhelming sentiment I got from last month’s People’s March – by the people, for the people. Government “leaders” may have been getting high on the sound of their own voices in Paris, but one thing the March clearly demonstrated was the huge variety of initiatives which are aiding the process of positive societal change, all of which are already functioning in the UK and beyond.

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This “hippy” could be recognised by hir placard. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Free (no price) and Free (liberated)

My role at the March was very particular: as an “exotic waste warrior”, I was showing what I got!

What did I got? Apples! Around 2500 of them,  rejected by supermarkets due to “cosmetic standards”, but thanks to the Gleaning Network (4) and This Is Rubbish(5), were intercepted and gifted as sustenance to anyone who came within a hundred feet of us.

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Apples for All! Photo by Feedback.

2500 at first seemed quite overwhelming, but in fact they all went amazingly quickly. We began handing out the apples around 11.30am and by the time the March actually began moving around 1.30pm we had only a couple of handfuls left. Such speed of redistribution shows that redirecting abundance can be very simple and easy; especially if we bring the surplus food to a place where there are many hungry people already gathering.

If you eat, you’re in

One key reason to be handing out apples on a march focused on climate change (other than their clear high value in both taste and symbology) is to highlight the impact which food waste has on the environment. Since we currently throw away around 30 – 50% of our food on a global scale even before it gets to a consumer (6), this equates to food waste, if it was a country, being the third largest producer of carbon emissions in the world, after only the USA and China (7).

If you are not a citizen of the USA or China you may think there is not much you can do about the first two, though it may be worthwhile considering where you buy your products from. There is a lot you can directly do about number 3, if you ever indulge in the pastime of eating.

You do? Then read on, as the solutions are delicious!

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Enjoying some of the delicious solutions as we handed out the fruit. Photo by Charlotte Haworth

Some tasty ideas

For starters we have harvesting rescuers The Gleaning Network (4) who intercept fruit and vegetables from the fields which would otherwise have gone to waste, and Abundance (8), who map wild fruit trees for DIY harvesting. Then there is national network Fareshare (9) who redistribute supermarket surplus to charities and community groups, and more local versions of this such as Community Food Enterprises (10) in London and the Food Waste Collective (11) in Brighton.

This is Rubbish uses intercepted supermarket fruit and vegetables in tantalising and creative ways to entice and inspire you to do more about saving food.

These groups are doing fantastic work to bring the surplus abundance which already exists to people who are hungry. Yet all are working on the idea that, once the root of the waste is addresd, ideally they would no longer need to exist.

We can all help with this simply by changing our shopping habits. One very easy step is to only buy food produced in your country of residence; as it has had to travel a lot less far and so is less likely to produce carbon emissions or for unnecessary amounts to be thrown away.

Another is to check out This is Rubbish’s new campaign Stop the Rot (12), which is aiming to reduce food waste throughout the UK supply chain.

Enough to whet your appetite? You don’t have to stop here… Food is an issue which affects us all, and eating can always feel good. How do you relate to your food? How can you use this to create a healthier, more energy efficient food system?

The only limit here is your imagination…

References

1. Cop21, 2015. ‘COP21’. http://www.cop21paris.org/
2. Dubioza Kolektiv, 2006. ‘Justce’. Lyrics by Dubioza kolektiv. https://www.gugalyrics.com/lyrics-403779/dubioza-kolektiv-justice.html
3. Ecowatch, 2015. ‘10,000 form human chain in Paris demanding that world leaders keep fossil fuels in the ground’. Ecowatch, 29/11/15. http://ecowatch.com/2015/11/29/human-chain-paris/
4. Feedback Global, 2015. The Gleaning Network’. http://www.thisisrubbish.org.uk/
5. This is Rubbish, 2015. ‘About TiR’. http://www.thisisrubbish.org.uk/
6. Institute of Mechanical Engineers, 2013. ‘Waste Not Want Not’. Imeche: London. Available as a PDF here: http://www.imeche.org/docs/default-source/reports/Global_Food_Report.pdf?sfvrsn=0
7. European Commission JOint Research Centre, 2015. CO2 time series 1990-2013 per capita for world countries. http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php?v=CO2ts_pc1990-2013
8. Abundance, 2015. ‘About Us’. http://www.abundancenetwork.org.uk/about-us
9. Fareshare, 2015. ‘About Us’. http://www.fareshare.org.uk/about-us/
10. CFE, 2015. ‘About Us’. http://www.c-f-e.org.uk/About%20CFE.htm
11. HASL, 2015. ‘Food Waste’. http://www.hasl.org.uk/food-waste.html
12. This is Rubbish, 2015. ‘Stop the Rot’. http://www.thisisrubbish.org.uk/project/stoptherot/

Gathering for Delicious Solutions – Join the People’s Party!

As the drizzle continues to spatter fitfully on the pavements, the grey sky reflecting from grey windows; the bare branches of the trees in Hyde Park waving in a rather dismal fashion, you would not necessarily expect that today London will see a hugely important gathering- a gathering to show that we as citizens of the world are willing to work together to protect and respect it. The gathering is a mirror of many others in cities throughout the globe, with the semi-focus (or excuse for a demonstration?) being Paris, the site of the 21st Conference of the Parties (1) – the largest international climate conference in the world.

Every year the ‘leaders’ of our countries meet at the Conference of the Parties, and every year numerous events are organised to show people’s opinion on the issues involved. The name of the demonstration in London today is the ‘People’s March for Climate, Justice and Jobs’ (2) and it will incorporate a hugely diverse section of British and international society, from Interfaith (3) to Frack Free (4), and with representation from all major UK political parties with the probably unsurprising exception of the Conservatives (5). Such variety is a fantastic opportunity to “showcase the breadth, diversity and creativity of the climate movement” (5).

Such showcasing is especially important in the wake of the French government’s somewhat counterintuitive decision to ban the planned sister demonstrations in Paris, under the pretext of “security concerns” (6). Though perhaps understandable, one plain message the ban seems to be sending is that the government does not want to listen to the people (7). Never mind. We can listen to each other…

I will be participating as part of the Food and Agriculture bloc with This is Rubbish (8), the Gleaning Network (9) and many others, and as part of my continuing efforts to turn around all previous perceptions of waste into ones of abundance, shall be merrily distributing intercepted apples to hungry gatherers along the way. As well as fruity treats we are planning to be marching with a ‘funky bluegrass band’; so even if you have never had any previous interest in the related issues, why not come along for a munch and a stomp?

The march starts at 1pm today, with the meeting point on Park Lane (nearest tube: Hyde Park Corner)(5). See you there!

References

  1. UNFCCC, 2015. ‘COP: What’s it all about?’ http://www.cop21paris.org/about/cop21 – retrieved 29/11/15
  2. Climate Justice Jobs, 2015. ‘About’. http://climatejusticejobs.org.uk/about/– retrieved 29/11/15
  3. World Jewish Relief, 2015. ‘Interfaith Event – People’s March’. Facebook, 29/11/15. https://www.facebook.com/events/1654130218200826/– retrieved 29/11/15
  4. People’s Climate March, 2015. ‘Frack Free Bloc @ the March’. Facebook, 29/1/15. https://www.facebook.com/events/907641779291656/– retrieved 29/11/15
  5. Climate Justice Jobs, 2015. ‘Blocs on the March’. http://climatejusticejobs.org.uk/blocs-on-the-march/– retrieved 29/11/15
  6. Prupis, N, 2015. ‘France Cancels Major Climate March, Groups Say they won’t be silenced’. Ecowatch, 19/11/15. http://ecowatch.com/2015/11/19/france-cancels-climate-march/– retrieved 29/11/15- retrieved 29/11/15
  7. Queally, J, 2015. ‘Groups Demand French President Lift Ban on Climate Proetsts and Marches’. Ecowatch, 27/11/15. http://ecowatch.com/2015/11/27/cop21-lift-ban-marches/ – retrieved 29/11/15
  8. This is Rubbish, 2015. ‘About TiR’. http://www.thisisrubbish.org.uk/– retrieved 29/11/15
  9. Feedback Global, 2015. ‘Gleaning Network’. http://feedbackglobal.org/campaigns/gleaning-network/ – retrieved 29/11/15

 

 

Advancing in Permaculture: Ideas for Achieving Dreams!

Permaculture: a small word with huge reverberations. Though the term was first coined in the 1970s (1), many of the principles and ethics are as old as human society—from being conscious of the world around us as inclusive of, rather than separate from, us, to the idea that nature is our best teacher and one of the best ways to expand our own education is to observe and interact with what is going on around us.

How we accomplish the practicalities of these ideas is as varied as there are people in interested in permaculture. This is one of the beauties of the system, as the only limit to what you can achieve using permaculture design is your own imagination. Many use permaculture to design gardens or farms (see for example 2); yet the design principles can also be applied to building (see for example 3), social systems (see for example 4) and even one’s own finances (see for example 5).

Yet this wide range of applications can also occasionally be a little overwhelming. How to use permaculture to focus in on what we really want to be achieving?

Practicalities!

It is partly with this in mind that I shall be participating next week in the Permaculture Advanced Design Course at the Casina Settarte (6) in Ostuni, South Italy. The five-day course, running from 4-8 December and facilitated by long-time practitioners Andrea Lo Presti and Giuseppe Sannicandro, is aimed at honing the skills of those already practised at permaculture design who are looking to improve and perhaps refine how to best work with their passions.

The skills which we shall be refining include specifics such as drawing to scale and using computer software in the design process, as well as more general communicational resources such as building bioregional networks and communicating with one’s clients (7).

All this in sunny Puglia in a project which was set up in 1993 in order to “create a context where people can find inspiration tuning with the nature” (8). Casina Settarte is a site for permaculture, as well as for art, and has hosted a number of workshops throughout the years including contact improvisation, yoga, various dance forms and singing (8). Next year, they shall be hosting a festival combining our connection to nature with our connection to our artistic passions called ‘Tuning into Nature’ (8).

Intrigued by all of this? The Advanced Permaculture Design Course still has places left, so if you fancy five days of inspiration in a gorgeous setting you might want to check out Casina Settarte’s website!

Live updates from the course to follow…

References

  1. Grayson, R, 2007. ‘A Short and Incomplete History of Permaculture’. Pacific Edge, 26/7/2007. http://pacific-edge.info/2007/07/a-short-and-incomplete-history-of-permaculture/
  2. Hemenway, 2009. Gaia’s Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture. Chelsea green: New York
  3. Brighton Permaculture Trust, 2015. ‘Eco-Build Courses’. https://brightonpermaculture.org.uk/courses/ecobuild
  4. Macnamara, L, 2012. People and Permaculture: Caring and Designing for Ourselves, Each Other and the Planet. Permanent Publications: Hampshire
  5. Murray, H, 2009. ‘02. Economics- designing more sustainable personal finances’. https://hedvigmurray.wordpress.com/permaculture-diploma/economics-my-personal-finances/
  6. Casina Settarte, 2015. ‘Mission’. http://www.casinasettarte.org/wordpress/?page_id=1343&lang=en
  7. Casina Settarte, 2015. ‘Permaculture Advanced Design Course’. http://www.casinasettarte.org/wordpress/?ai1ec_event=permaculture-advanced-design-course&lang=en
  8. Casina Settarte, 2015. ‘History’. http://www.casinasettarte.org/wordpress/?page_id=991&lang=e

Exotic Excess at the Harvest Stomp

All photos by Alan Husband.

The Exotic Excess Cafe. Photo by Alan Husband.

The Exotic Excess Cafe. Photo by Alan Husband.

The poet William Blake said “the thankful receiver bears a plentiful harvest” (1). If he was right, then the visitors to the Exotic Excess Café at Groundwork (2)’s Harvest Stomp Festival (3) this Autumn Equinox are now very well provisioned. The Café, run by community interest group This is Rubbish (TiR) (4), was perhaps inaptly named as we were not selling anything but giving away huge amounts of surplus fruit and vegetables. As the autumn sun shone down on the tightly trimmed grass of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, London, we could hardly move for interested and thankful visitors and happy festival-goers.

Thankful receivers bearing our plentiful harvest. Photo by Alan Husband.

Thankful receivers bearing our plentiful harvest. Photo by Alan Husband.

A Modern Harvest

The festival had many diverse stalls, from bee-keeping demonstrations with honey harvests to vegetable competitions for home-grown harvests. At the Exotic Excess café, however, we were focussing on a slightly different kind of harvest. As an estimated 36% of the food purchased in the UK goes to waste before it even reaches the consumer (5), there is a huge potential to intercept this and re-direct it to people who need food. As I have already explored through my work with the Gleaning Network (6) and the Food Waste Collective (7), there are a number of different strategies already operative in the UK for how to do this.

A key aspect of any food redistribution work is (unsurprisingly) sourcing the food and then finding hungry people to give it to. Perhaps of equal importance is the way in which we perceive and react to our food. If we show appreciation and thankfulness we are probably more likely to give value to the stuff we eat and see it as a worthy substance that should be used carefully and responsibly, rather than as a commodity. One fantastic way of doing this is to have a celebration! So that’s exactly what we did…

Talking about the Food

As we currently produce around enough food in the world to feed 12bn people (7). This coupled with the estimated 30 – 50% of food which is wasted annually on a global scale (9) shows starkly that food scarcity is an illusion and better organisation of food systems is necessary.

However, if we confront people with only facts such as those stated above, there is a chance of creating feelings of anger and/or helplessness. We prefer to inspire – which is why we have Exotic Hostesses serving up intercepted food on silver trays, and encourage communal eating in shared appreciation with a finale of a giant Salad Toss – where we entice members of the public to aid in creating a salad so large it has to be tossed in a tarpaulin.

Preparing Fruity Sticks, and for the Great Salad. Photo by Alan Husband.

Preparing Fruity Sticks, and for the Great Salad. Photo by Alan Husband.

Fruity Sticks and Salad Tosses

When I participated in the Exotic Excess Café last July at the Waterloo Food Festival (10) the predominant food stuffs we had intercepted was bananas, apples, peaches, grapes, oranges…In other words, fruit, fruit and more fruit. This year, we had many more vegetables to redistribute, including numerous packets of rocket and crates of lettuce, as well as carrots, courgettes and peppers. Thus the Salad was a savoury one, but we still had many many fruits to distribute, which we did in the form of make-your-own Fruity Sticks (a hit with the younger visitors) as well as inviting passersby to collect from our “shop” – actually, freely available produce for anyone to take and consume.

Who Could Resist? Photo by Alan Husband.

Who Could Resist? Photo by Alan Husband.

A Glimpse of Abundance. Photo by Alan Husband.

A Glimpse of Abundance. Photo by Alan Husband.

Excess to no Excess

At many food surplus events I have worked at, we have excess food at the end which it is a puzzle what to know to do with. I still have some kilograms of dried corn left from last September’s sweetcorn glean (11), waiting to be polenta-ed; and we were definitely far from taking all of the corn which was going to waste on that day.

However, the vibrant volunteers, along with the warmth of the day and the irresistibility of taking free food (especially when it’s been sprinkled with edible glitter) meant that the event was a great success. Once the festival-goers had got over any confusion or even suspicion about why we were not asking for money, most took to the idea with pleasure. So when we began gathering people for the grand finale, the Great Salad Toss, we ended up with quite a crowd of about twenty to take on the noble role of holding the tarpaulin while the salad ingredients were poured in.

Helping the Sultan to entice people to give a toss. Photo by Alan Husband.

Helping the Sultan to entice people to give a toss. Photo by Alan Husband.

Salad tossing can be a tricky business, and with such a giant salad it has to be seen as a precise art. Luckily we had This is Rubbish’s Sultan overseeing affairs, and the tossing went smoothly with much enjoyment from the crowd.

A perfect toss. Photo by Alan Husband.

A perfect toss. Photo by Alan Husband.

What’s Next?

All feedback I received on the day was positive, and we collected many ‘food waste pledges’ from people inspired to take personal, practical steps towards reducing food waste in their own lives. There will probably be more Exotic Excess Cafés to follow – check out the TiR website (4) for more information – yet ideally, we shouldn’t have to run such events at all, if we all begin using food in a responsible and respectful way.

To this end TiR have many other projects including the brand newly launched ‘Stop the Rot’ (12) campaign, aimed at influencing government and industry to introduce new ways of dealing with food which will reduce the amount of waste in the UK. In order to be effective the campaign needs as much publicity from the British public as possible, so feel free to spread the word. Even if you do not feel you wish to place your energy into national politics, remember that all government action is ultimately decided by what the citizens of a country do – or don’t do.

All change begins at a personal level, and in this time of harvest it is worth noting the abundance around us and perhaps changing our perceptions to envision and act towards a more fruitful future.

References

  1. Blake, W, 1790 -93. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. Bodleian Library: Oxford (Re-printed 2011).
  2. Groundwork, 2015. ‘About Us’. http://www.groundwork.org.uk/Pages/Category/about-us-uk – retrieved 2/10/15
  3. Groundwork London, 2015. ‘The Harvest Stomp’, Project Dirt Events. http://www.projectdirt.com/apps/event/37931/– retrieved 2/10/15
  4. This is Rubbish, 2015. ‘About’. http://www.thisisrubbish.org.uk/ – retrieved 2/10/15
  5. WRAP, 2015. Estimates of Food and Packaging Waste in the UK Grocery Retail and Hospitality Supply Chains. http://www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/UK%20Estimates%20February%2015%20%28FINAL%29.pdf – retrieved 2/10/15
  6. Feedback Global UK, 2015. Gleaning Network. http://feedbackglobal.org/campaigns/gleaning-network/– retrieved 2/10/15
  7. Hanover Action for Sustainable Living, 2015. ‘The Food Waste Collective’. http://www.hasl.org.uk/food-waste.html – retrieved 2/10/15
  8. De Schutter, O, 2013. ‘Report on Right to Food’. United Nations General Assembly: Geneva
  9. Institute of Mechanical Engineers 2010. ‘Waste Not Want Not’. IMechE: London. Available as a PDF here: http://www.imeche.org/docs/default-source/reports/Global_Food_Report.pdf?sfvrsn=0 – retrieved 10/9/15
  10. This is Rubbish, 2015. ‘Exotic Excess, Lower Marsh Market, Waterloo’. http://www.thisisrubbish.org.uk/event/july-2014-exotic-excess-lower-marsh-market-waterloo/ – retrieved 2/10/15
  11. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘Gleaning First-Hand’. Abundance Garden, 3/11/14. https://abundancedancegarden.wordpress.com/2014/11/03/gleaning-first-hand/ – retrieved 2/10/15
  12. This is Rubbish, 2015. ‘Stop the Rot’. http://www.thisisrubbish.org.uk/project/stoptherot/– retrieved 2/10/15

Notes

All photos by Alan Husband. Want to see more of the day? His Flickr album is here: Harvest Stomp on flickr.

Seed Saving for Beginners

Now that spring is officially here and the balance of light has tipped towards days being longer than nights, many people are beginning to get our gardens ready for an abundant year.

One of the key parts of growing your own crops – whether for food, as companion plants or simply to look pretty – is saving seeds from your own varieties so that you can grow them again next year.

Seed saving is rewarding and very useful in terms of food security and helping plants become adapted and resilient. The techniques are pretty simple, and I have already written some basic seed saving tips here (1) which focus mainly on how to harvest seeds once you have produced them. But how do you get to the point where you have some seeds you believe are worth saving?

This Equinox, I was joined by a lovely (and coincidentally, all female) group of keen beginner seed savers at the Oasis Nature Garden (2) in Stockwell to explore some ways of growing crops to save seed. Below are the notes from my workshop.

If you were not at the workshop, hopefully the notes will still serve to inspire and guide you a little. If you feel like you need more, perhaps it’s worth considering attending a seed saving workshop of your own.

Introduction

The workshop was organised as part of the ‘Spring Re-skilling Workshop’ (ref) series run by the London Freedom Seed Bank (3). The aims of the London Freedom Seed Bank are to:

  1. Educate people to help them to save seeds properly through trainings into how to ensure biodiversity, quality and varietal purity
  2. Provide a community resource for people to utilise as a seed bank (3)

My workshop goes through the first point. After the workshop, participants could take home a variety of their choice from the Seed Bank, to grow and save seeds from which they can then pass back to the Seed Bank during the Autumn Harvest festival.

This is the workshop plan:

Workshop Plan - Design by Charlotte Haworth

Workshop Plan – Design by Charlotte Haworth

 

  1. Why save seed?

You may want to save seed to save money (so you don’t have to keep buying new seeds every year), to keep a variety which is not generally available, or to create an abundance of seeds which you can share with others. The Heritage Seed Library (4) – a great resource for any seed saver, and well worth a look – also gives these reasons why people might want to save seeds:

– To preserve a link with the past

– To assure a supply of a particular variety

– “Making a deliberate stand against current trends in the seed industry” *(we will go into more detail about this in section 2)

-To create surplus seed

– Because they have always done so….

– To stop genetic erosion and preserve biodiversity (5)

When we save seeds, we are taking our autonomy over what we are producing, preserving and consuming. It is important when we do this that we understand what open pollinated techniques are, and how they differ from commercial seed production techniques.

  1. The difference between Commercial and Open Pollinated

Most commercial seeds – whether they are for sale for farmers in the large-scale agriculture industry, or for home-growing gardeners, are produced specifically for ease of growing all crops more or less the same i.e. all of the crops will be suited to more or less the same environment, will need the same chemical inputs, and will crop at more or less the same time. For commercial growers who have to fulfil the demands of market quotas this is very useful (1). Indeed, in the EU it is illegal for seeds to be sold for commercial use which do not conform to strict criteria of “Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability” (1, 6).

F1

To this end, many commercial seeds are bred to conform to these standards. One method which has been discovered of creating seeds which produce crops that are distinctive, uniform and stable is to hybridise, or cross-breed, two different strains from the same family. The resulting offspring all contain the same genetic material and so all follow more or less identical growing patterns. This type of seed-breeding is known as “F1” as the seeds created are the “first filial” generation of the new variety.

Can you save seeds from F1 varieties?

As F1 varieties have two different parents, when you save seeds from them to plant the resulting offspring will revert to either one of the two parents, or a random mix of them. This means they will not grow “true to type”: you will not be able to save a particular variety from them as you cannot guarantee what characteristics the plants will have.

If you wish to create your own, new variety, saving seeds from F1 varieties may be a good place to start. Then you need to save seeds from numerous successive generations (at least four generations are needed to stabilise the variety), killing all of the plants which do not exhibit the varieties you are looking for, so that you can create a strain which is pure. This is the method which breeders use, but it involves a lot of trial and error, and sacrificing of plants which you will not be able to use for eating or other things. As such, saving seeds from F1 varieties is not suitable for anyone except those wishing to dedicate time and space to breeding new varieties.

If you simply wish to save seeds for use next year, it is definitely better to grow crops from Open Pollinated seeds.

Open Pollinated techniques

When seeds are Open Pollinated (sometimes shortened to OP), it means that they reproduce naturally. Seeds created using this technique are resilient, adaptable to numerous climatic and chemical changes and variable. The last characteristic is important to note as it means that when using OP seeds you need to actively preserve the varietal strain by making sure that they are not too variable.

  1. Life Cycle

This is a generalised, simplified version of the life cycle of a plant:

The Life Cycle - Design by Charlotte Haworth

The Life Cycle – Design by Charlotte Haworth

For most growers, especially commercial growers, they only reach the second stage and then cut the cycle short by harvesting all plants. Even if the plant is being grown for the seed as a crop, as with corn (zea mays) or fruits such as tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum) and peppers capsicum annuum), then chances are that if the seed is harvested and re-planted the plants will not grow true-to-type (see Section 2, above).

The growers then have to buy new seeds if they wish to continue growing the following year. This is very useful for commercial seed producers as they have a continuing customer base.

But how do the seeds keep being produced?

If you are interested in the life cycle, it is important to note that even with commercial seeds, someone somewhere is going through the whole life cycle – even if they are F1, they still need to keep producing parent plants for the hybridised seeds. However, the commercial life cycle looks more like this:

Life Cycle Interrupted - Design by Charlotte Haworth

Life Cycle Interrupted – Design by Charlotte Haworth

The seeds which are then available to the public will not be true to type when re-planted. When you look at who owns what in the commercial seed market (see for example seed co mind map) it is clear that there are only a few key companies. It is not in their short-term financial interests to preserve a wide variety of crops as these are more difficult to maintain, so they do not. Since the Second World War, we have lost an estimated 70% (7) of our food crop varieties.

Agropoly - Source: Philip H. Howard www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability (2009)

Agropoly – Source: Philip H. Howard http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability (2009)

One more thing to note which may be of interest is that all of the major seed companies are also agrichemical companies so it is in their interest to produce seeds which rely on or are adapted to heavy use of e.g. fertilisers, herbicides or pesticides. This is true even of seeds which are not F1 – they will still have been bred to be reliant on a ‘junk food’ diet.

What do points 1, 2 and 3 mean about saving seeds?

– It is important to save seeds if we wish to have greater nutritional choice, biodiversity and food security

– Seed saving is about creating a diversity of choices in terms of numbers of varieties available but at the same time is about keeping those varieties distinct to create more adaptability and resilience

So, when we are saving seeds, we need to be thinking about the wider picture of keeping many different varieties – some of which have been bred for hundreds or sometimes thousands of years – alive. However, on a practical, individual level, it is just as important to consider the importance of varietal purity and ensuring we keep our strains from mixing with others.

  1. Cross-pollinating and self-pollinating plants

To make our seed saving as easy as possible, we also have to be aware of some more distinctions.

Annuals, perennials and biennials

Many of our garden crops are annuals – this means that they naturally die after one growing season, so their seeds are produced at the end of that growing season.

Some examples of common annual crops include

– Tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum)

– Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa)

– Peas (Phaseolus Vulgaris)

– Peppers (Capsicum Annuum)*

*These are annual crops in temperate regions, though in the tropics/warm environments such as hothouses, can be grown as perennials.

Many of our garden crops are biennials – this means they take two years to complete their growing cycle, so you have to care for them for this long if you wish to harvest seed from them.

Some examples of biennial crops include

– Carrot (Daucus Carota subsp. Sativus)

– Parsnip (Pastinaca Sativa)

– Broccoli, Cabbage, Kale, Brussels Sprouts, Kohl Rabi (Brassica Oleracea)

– Beetroot and Chard (Beta Vulgaris)

Many of our garden crops are perennials – their life cycle lasts more than two years and it can be a number of years before they produce seeds.

Some examples of perennial crops include

– Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

– Globe Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus)

– Blackcurrant (Ribes Nigrum)

– Gooseberry (Ribes Grossularia)

*Strawberries, though a perennial shrub, can be disregarded when it comes to seed saving as all cultivated strawberries are produced using hybridisation (of Fragaria x Ananassa) and therefore will not produce true-to-type offspring. Most crops grown in this way are clones.

Reproduction

In order to reproduce and create seeds, plants need to reproduce using flowers which have both male and female parts which need to exchange pollen for reproduction to happen(this is true for the majority of plants, and all relevant food crops). This pollen exchange can happen by wind, insects or other menas. With flowers, it is important to note two further distinctions, the difference between self-pollinating and cross-pollinating plants.

Self-pollinating

            Plants which are self-pollinating can reproduce with themselves i.e. they . These plants are also known as self-fertile.

Flowers which have the capacity for self-pollination have the male and female parts in the same flower. These flowers are known as perfect flowers.

 

Cross-pollinating

Plants which are cross-pollinating have male and female parts in separate flowers; sometimes on the same plant and sometimes on different plants. These are known as imperfect flowers.

Cross-pollinating plants have the capacity to cross-breed with any other variety in that species. For some crops, this is a huge variety; for example, your broccoli seeds can cross-breed not only with other broccoli varieties but also with any other variety in the same family (brassica oleracea) – this includes cabbage, kale, Brussel sprouts and swede!

So which plants are easiest to save seeds from?

As a beginner seed saver, or an experienced seed saver who wants to ensure the best success possible, the easiest plants to save seeds from are going to be annual crops (so that you only have one growing season before you can harvest the seeds) which are self-fertile (so that there is less risk of cross-pollination).

Great! So, er…how do I know which ones these are?

Though the botany of perfect and imperfect flowers is quite simple, it may not be possible to tell whether a plant is self-pollinating just from looking at it. These pictures are all of plants which are self-pollinating:

Phaseolus Lunatus (Lima Bean) - Drawn by Charlotte Haworth

Phaseolus Lunatus (Lima Bean) – Drawn by Charlotte Haworth

Lactuca Sativa (Lettuce) - Drawn by Charlotte Haworth

Lactuca Sativa (Lettuce) – Drawn by Charlotte Haworth

Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) - Drawn by Charlotte Haworth

Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) – Drawn by Charlotte Haworth

As you can see, the flowers are variable in shape, colour, number of petals etc. Therefore it is useful to look up whichever crop you are planning to grow to make sure it is self-pollinating. Two useful resources are the Plants for a Future database, and the HSL guidelines, which also go into more detail about the biological aspects.

  1. Seed Saving from Self-pollinating plants

Even with self-pollinating plants, cross-pollination can still be an issue, so it may be best to only grow one variety from every family you plan to save seed from.

Rogueing

      When you are growing plants for seed, you have to be prepared to sacrifice some of the plants in order to ensure varietal purity and high-quality seed. You need to keep an eye on your plants, and if any of them seem to be exhibiting characteristics which are not typical of the strain, you need to take them out and kill them before they begin flowering. The same is true of any plants which are not as strong or healthy as the others.

This practice is known as “rogueing” and it needs to be factored in to your planting plan. However many plants you want to end up with, you need to plant more to take into account the ones you may have to get rid of. The HSL guidelines go into more detail on amounts for specific species.

Some self-fertile annual varieties and tips on saving seeds from them

All of these crops are self-pollinating annuals:

– Broad Beans (Vicia Faba)

– French Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris)*

– Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa)

– Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus)

– Pea (Pisum Sativum)

– Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea)

– Pepper – Sweet and Chili (Capsicum Anuum)

– Runner Beans (Phaseolus Coccineus)*

– Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum)

 

I will go into detail here about one variety, the Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) – a very easy plant to save seeds from and recommended by many as the first to try.

For detailed guidlines on the others check out the HSL guidelines.

All tomatoes are self-fertile, with 3 exceptions:

– Solanum pimpinellifolium (currant tomato) – generally thought of as the wild ancestor of the tomato.

– Potato-leaved varieties of tomato of which there are at least 400. Some examples include: Brandywine True Black and Cherokee Purple.

If unsure, you can check out www.tatianastomatobase.com (8) which has a comprehensive list of varieties

– Double Blossom Beefsteak

If your tomatoes are not one of these three exceptions then you can grow more than 1 variety at a time

– When growing for seed, bear in mind that different varieties produce different amounts of seeds and it is not always the case that the bigger the fruit the more seeds.

– The seeds are inside the fruit. Best way to harvest the seeds is to allow the fruit to ripen on the plant. Make sure the fruits you are harvesting seeds from are fully mature – even though firm tomatoes are good to eat, the seeds will not be ready until the fruit is fully ripe.

Saving – Use the fermentation method. I go into detail about how to do this here: Seed Saving Part 2 (1).

Tomato seeds need to be fermented in order to ensure viability because of the coating around each seed which inhibits germination. Fermentation also destroys seed-borne diseases.

– One thing to mention is that when using the fermentation method you need to check the seeds in the water every day and strain the water and bad seeds out as soon as the mould appears, as if you leave it too long, they may start to sprout!

Storage: Make sure you dry the seeds properly in a well-ventilated, dry space. HSL recommends a plate or sheet of glass, if you have one lying around. Then store them in a packet with the date and variety written clearly on it.

– Tomato seeds can be viable for up to 6 years when stored correctly.

References

1. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘Seed Saving, part 2: Practical ways to save seed’.  https://permaculturenews.org/2014/11/14/seed-saving-part-2-practical-ways-to-save-seed// – retrieved 28/3/15

  1. Oasis, 2014. ‘Oasis Play: Nature Garden’. http://oasisplay.org.uk/come-and-play/nature-garden/ – retrieved 28/3/15
  2. London Freedom Seed Bank, 2014. ‘About Us’. https://londonfreedomseedbank.wordpress.com/about/ – retrieved 28/3/15
  3. Garden Organic, 2015. ‘Heritage Seed Library Seed Saving Guidelines’. http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/seed-saving-guidelines– retrieved 28/3/15
  4. Garden Organic, 2015. ‘Heritage Seed Library Seed Saving Guidelines: Why save Seed?’ Available as a PDF here: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/sites/www.gardenorganic.org.uk/files/resources/hsl/1_WhySaveSeed.pdf – retrieved 28/3/15
  5. Haworth, C, 2014. ‘Seed Saving part 1: Seedy Issues’. Permaculture News, 18/10/14. http://permaculturenews.org/2014/10/18/seed-saving-part-1-seedy-issues/ – retrieved 28/3/15
  6. Bifurcated Carrots, 2007. ‘Biodiversity Begins at Home’. http://bifurcatedcarrots.eu/2007/10/biodiversity-begins-at-home/ – retrieved 28/3/15
  7. Tatiana’s Tomato Base, 2015. ‘Main Page’. http://tatianastomatobase.com/wiki/Main_Page – retrieved 28/3/15